Techno Classroom http://technoclassroom.com Be Curious - Be Inspired Mon, 22 Oct 2018 19:15:11 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.6 http://technoclassroom.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/cropped-Trottier-1.jpg Techno Classroom http://technoclassroom.com 32 32 What is Bone conduction – How it works? http://technoclassroom.com/what-is-bone-conduction-how-it-works/ http://technoclassroom.com/what-is-bone-conduction-how-it-works/#comments Mon, 22 Oct 2018 19:15:11 +0000 http://technoclassroom.com/?p=60 Have you ever heard of the phenomenon that you can hear the sound not through your ears but through your skull bones? Yes, this is possible and this not a new concept, in fact, it goes back into history. If you have heard of the world-renowned music composer – Ludwig Van Beethoven, Yes the one whose music intro we used to hear on the windows PC – window media player! **See the video at the end of the page to know more! Beethoven supposedly went partially deaf and was using a tong clinched under his mouth to hear to the melody he created.   What is bone conduction? Humans can hear sound in two ways: Through our ears Through our

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Have you ever heard of the phenomenon that you can hear the sound not through your ears but through your skull bones?

Yes, this is possible and this not a new concept, in fact, it goes back into history. If you have heard of the world-renowned music composer – Ludwig Van Beethoven, Yes the one whose music intro we used to hear on the windows PC – window media player!

**See the video at the end of the page to know more!

Beethoven supposedly went partially deaf and was using a tong clinched under his mouth to hear to the melody he created.

 

What is bone conduction?

Humans can hear sound in two ways:

  1. Through our ears
  2. Through our bones

The ear transmission is what we all are aware of, that is the usual listening mechanism of music and ambient sounds simply through our ears. However, listening sound through our bones might sound a bit cheeky to you but that is possible. The bone conduction phenomenon works primarily with the concept in which our jaw or cheekbones passes the sound vibrations to our inner ears while bypassing our eardrums. Cool isn’t it.

You can read and learn more on audiowavegeek.com, Bone Conduction overview, if you are interested and also get a list of the latest bone conduction headphones (both wired and wireless) if you want to buy one for yourself or the one you care about.

See below the picture giving more clarity on what we have just mentioned:

Bone Conduction headphones for ARMY_technoclasroom.com

 

Ludvig Van Beethoven when went partially deaf used this very concept to hear to the music that he used to compose, this way it was already proved that by stimulating the jawbone or cheekbone with an external stimulant (in this case, his wand which he used to touch the piano) sound pattern can reach to our auditory portion and we can hear external sounds without the use of our eardrums:

beethovan_bone_conduction_headphone_audiowavegeek

Applications of bone conduction

There have been many applications but to name a few the major ones are in the field of:

  • Hearing aids for the people having a problem with hearing
  • Military – for the soldiers who are on the battlefield and want to hear ambient noise along with the other commands
  • Sports – People performing outdoor sports, bone conduction has come as a boon to them saving from ongoing traffic on the roads
  • Underwater activities – Scuba diving was greatly benefited from this as there was no other mechanism earlier to communicate when underwater

We strongly believe that there could be much other application of bone conduction and it is just a matter of time that human realize the potential of this marvelous piece of human anatomical engineering done by the almighty. we soon will develop more avenues to exploit its potential in a good way.

 


Also, read:


 

You can see a quick video which describes the bone conduction technology and the latest bone conduction headphones for music lovers currently available in the market to buy:

The headphones as seen in the video above sits comfortably on the top of the outer lobe of the ear and doesn’t feel uncomfortable at all, we have personally tested the Aftershokz headphone and were very pleased with the results. This is, of course, no audiophile headphones but it definitely serves the purpose well for everyday use while providing you with a safe and secure environment while enjoying your music.

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Whats is the Difference between RAM and ROM http://technoclassroom.com/whats-is-the-difference-between-ram-and-rom/ http://technoclassroom.com/whats-is-the-difference-between-ram-and-rom/#comments Mon, 03 Apr 2017 03:32:17 +0000 http://technoclassroom.com/?p=40   Have you ever felt confused between RAM and ROM while dealing or talking about computer and mobile devices? Well if yes, then let’s solve this for once and all! What are RAM and ROM RAM is an acronym of Random Access Memory whereas ROM stands for Read Only Memory, but let’s stop here and first understand what are these and why do we have these two types of memories rather than just cramming about the full forms. These days RAM and ROM are not limited to Computers only as the mobile devices, tablets, printers, smart watches, smart home appliances, televisions etc that we use; all are comprised of microprocessors, RAM and ROM. Both of these memories are used to

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Have you ever felt confused between RAM and ROM while dealing or talking about computer and mobile devices?

Well if yes, then let’s solve this for once and all!

What are RAM and ROM

RAM is an acronym of Random Access Memory whereas ROM stands for Read Only Memory, but let’s stop here and first understand what are these and why do we have these two types of memories rather than just cramming about the full forms.

These days RAM and ROM are not limited to Computers only as the mobile devices, tablets, printers, smart watches, smart home appliances, televisions etc that we use; all are comprised of microprocessors, RAM and ROM.

Both of these memories are used to store data in a computer and provide the user the access to the stored data when required, the usage of these memories or the situations they come into play differs in terms of the operation of the computer or other electronic devices. For example –

  • When we switch on the computer/device, during the bootup process it picks up the PREWRITTEN script/data from the ROM. Basically, it follows the set guidelines mentioned in the ROM to carry out a function (booting up of computer is one such functions, there are much more; like how should a computer print etc)
  • When the computer is running and you open an application (eg. MS Word, game, browser etc), RAM starts operating. The RAM further to this gets his set of instructions from the ROM and then RAM works in real time

 

Now let us do a side by side comparison of the two memory types:

RAM ROM
It’s a read and write memory, instruction set changes as per the requirement Data is prerecorded, once written cannot be removed but can only be read (except for EPROM)
Its volatile means the data stored will be deleted when the computer goes to off state. Which means that the data stored is power supply dependent Its Nonvolatile means the data stored doesn’t delete even if the computer system is turned off. That means ROM storage is not power supply dependent
RAM is faster, Computers can read from RAM very quickly and also they can write new data in RAM faster ROM are comparatively slower, writing data to a ROM chip is a slow process (but done once, while manufacturing)
A RAM chip can store multiple gigabytes (GB) of data A ROM chip typically stores only several megabytes (MB) of data
RAM chips are bigger in size ROM chips are smaller in size

 

*Ping point: Both these memories have further types, which are explained below briefly:

RAM

  1. DRAM – Dynamic RAM; is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. It needs to be periodically refreshed.

It uses a single transistor to store each bit, which causes a need to refresh for the charge to remain.

  1. Example: main memory in a computer like DDR3
  2. Size: 1GB to 6GB in smartphones and tablets; 4GB to 16GB in laptops
  1. SRAM – Static RAM; it uses a pair of transistors in a flip-flop or seesaw motion to maintain the charge. This eliminates the time-consuming need to refresh, which makes SRAM considerably faster but limits its density or capacity potential. SRAM does not have to be periodically refreshed.
    1. Example: L2 and L3 cache in a CPU
    2. Size: 1MB to 16MB

ROM

  1. PROM – Programmable read only memory; it’s a memory chip on which we can store a program, but once it’s used we cannot delete the data and use it to store something else. These are also nonvolatile.
  2. EPROM – Erasable programmable read only memory; it’s a special PROM which can be erased by exposing it to the ultraviolet light.
  • EEPROM – Electrically erasable programmable read only memory; it’s a special PROM which can be erased by exposing it to the electrical charge.

How it works

Ram_Rom_Computer system

 

The Computer system needs any type of storage/memory system to fetch and execute the data. Memory is used by the computer to perform few functions quickly. Suppose if the computer system has to go to the hard drive every time it needs some guidelines or information to perform some task; it will be dead slow, isn’t it. Therefore some information is kept in quick access memory, both permanent and temporary for the computer to work efficiently and quickly.

Now we will see with the help of a flow chart how these memories work in a computer system:

Ram_Rom_Algo

 

These days computers, mobile phones and other processor and RAM/ROM based devices are coming with faster processing power and bigger capacity RAMs and ROMs providing the consumer with amazing performance lightning speeds to carry out complex tasks, of course the prices of these devices varies in line with their performance capabilities.

We have seen a growth from; a RAM with a capacity of few MBs to few GBs. Let’s see what future have in store for us.

Cheers!

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What is Internet of things (IoT) – How does it work http://technoclassroom.com/what-is-iot/ http://technoclassroom.com/what-is-iot/#comments Sat, 01 Apr 2017 09:27:52 +0000 http://technoclassroom.com/?p=19 Have you ever wondered that what will happen if your music system, bread toaster, washing machine, TV, juicer, car i.e. almost all of your electronic devices are connected to each other and can talk!! Well yes, literally! What will happen then? Welcome to the world of internet of things !!!! What is Internet of Things Internet of things is an intelligent system of systems! Devices will connect to each other with the help of internet to form a group, further these groups will connect to each other forming a bigger group, so much bigger that all the electronic devices are connected to each other ultimately forming a large system of the connected device which can share and comprehend the information.

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Have you ever wondered that what will happen if your music system, bread toaster, washing machine, TV, juicer, car i.e. almost all of your electronic devices are connected to each other and can talk!! Well yes, literally! What will happen then?

Welcome to the world of internet of things !!!!

What is Internet of Things

Internet of things is an intelligent system of systems! Devices will connect to each other with the help of internet to form a group, further these groups will connect to each other forming a bigger group, so much bigger that all the electronic devices are connected to each other ultimately forming a large system of the connected device which can share and comprehend the information.

Let’s take few examples

  1. Suppose in one of our cities the streets and highways are installed with the smart cameras (which are connected to each other) which will send the traffic data over cloud to the data center to analyze it, the data center can real-time pick out the unusual behavior in one of the streets (say may be due to a car accident) so that the system can itself alert the commuters (cars/buses with IoT-enabled devices) and the people entering into the city to choose alternate routes and moderate the traffic lights to avoid congestion and keep a smooth flow of traffic.

Moreover, the vehicle will itself send the message to the nearby hospital for providing ambulance service and nearby police station in case of any criminal activity pertaining to the accident.

Furthermore, this system will be connected to the other transportation systems in the city like metro, bus, and airport which will have their own smaller set of the system which can be alerted to make necessary changes in their timings of operation.

 

  1. A patient is planted with an IoT-enabled pacemaker in the heart, which is connected to the cloud, any unusual behavior in the heart’s functioning will result into an urgent ping to the assigned doctor, who even remotely in real-time can see the stats and the complete history and medication provided to the patient without even calling the patient and doctor can take an immediate action without wasting crucial seconds to save his life.

Similarly, IoT can have many applications in the domains like – Energy, Power, Communications, Medical, Home automation, retail, manufacturing, transportation etc. the use cases can be numerous.

*Ping point: IoT is a concept which has already started becoming a reality but the pace is gradual. With the introduction of the IoT compliant devices and more connected devices in future, it is going to do wonders for the convenience to humanity.

Building blocks of IoT

The major components of the Internet of Things are:

  1. End device/Node – It is an essential part of the IoT or I should say that this is the “T” or things in the IoT.

Majorly these are the active sensing devices and actuators which collect the data (depending on the complexity of the sensor, it may do some processing as well) which is then fed into the processing units. There is a vast majority of equipment which falls into this category and it’s very difficult to list all down here, as it depends on the use case. A few examples could be temperature sensors at home, RFID sensors at a garment store, cameras at the highways etc.

  1. Gateways cum local processing nodes – It connects the End nodes to the network/cloud. Ideally, it should not only transfer the data collected from the sensors to the cloud but should process it to some extent and then forward the relevant data to the cloud for making predictions and inferences. For example: if a motion sensor is installed in a room, it will collect the data in the form of zeros and for any motion it will change that value to one, so if gateway will start passing all the huge number of zero values to the cloud the cloud service will be filled with huge amount of irrelevant data.

Currently, this is what is happening, in future the gateways will possess more intelligence and some storage to offload the cloud service.

It also provides the intelligence to the end nodes by sending back the data from the application/cloud.

  1. Connectivity – As IoT is a networked system, connectivity is an essential part of it. Service providers are providing many solutions around IoT to connect the end nodes to the gateways and gateways to the cloud, as this is a duplex system means the communication works to and fro between applications and hardware, data or signal also flow in reverse.

Depending on the geography and deployment schema, the connectivity could be a combination of the wireless and wired mechanism. For example, Bluetooth, WiFi, Radio Frequency, GSM, ZigBee, VPN etc are few examples of short and long range connectivity options.

  1. Cloud-based application and storage – Cloud or the cloud-based application’s job is to compute the collected data, analyze it and make inferences and predictions. The application generally is based at a central location unlike the end nodes or the local gateways. It does the real-time processing, storage for long-term, content delivery etc. Here business intelligence related decisions are also taken

Ping tip: By 2020 approximately 50 Billion products will be connected to the internet. And that will be more than 6 objects person or in other words, 6 times more than that of the would be world’s population.

How it works

The sensors collect the data, provide it to the gateway/local processing unit for a low-level processing and filtering and then the gateway send the same to the connected cloud for in-depth data analyses and to make inferences. The inferences drawn can be fed back to the sensor/end node and can also be sent to the business application for continuous improvement. The devices are connected via the internet all the while and can communicate seamlessly with each other so that they can make any real-time change as and when required.

IoT has already started gaining traction and soon we will see almost all the electronic devices produced will be IoT-enabled (i.e. with sensors and actuators) which will make our life more convenient and efficient. The deployment scenarios will depend solely on our need and the creativity of the developer and implementer, IoT is going to be big, very big and very soon.

Hopefully not taking all the controls and steer the human race!!!

Cheers!

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What is Wifi – How does it work http://technoclassroom.com/how-wifi-works/ http://technoclassroom.com/how-wifi-works/#respond Sat, 01 Apr 2017 09:19:27 +0000 http://technoclassroom.com/?p=15 You must have been to an airport, hotel, coffee shop, library or any event where you have encountered this wireless networking technology. WiFi is an abbreviated term (commonly accepted amongst techies) which stands for Wireless Fidelity, it is a technology that uses radio waves to provide network connectivity. What is Wifi Wireless networking is known as WiFi or 802.11 networking as defined by the IEEE 802.11 specifications of WLANs.  It defines over the air communication interface between the two devices, primarily the access point/base station and the Client/user’s device or PC. Further, there are specifications to 802.11 standards as a/b/g/n/ac* which defines the frequency band of operation, bandwidth/speed and the backward compatibility. *Ping point: specification “n” is the most commonly

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You must have been to an airport, hotel, coffee shop, library or any event where you have encountered this wireless networking technology.

WiFi is an abbreviated term (commonly accepted amongst techies) which stands for Wireless Fidelity, it is a technology that uses radio waves to provide network connectivity.

What is Wifi

Wireless networking is known as WiFi or 802.11 networking as defined by the IEEE 802.11 specifications of WLANs.  It defines over the air communication interface between the two devices, primarily the access point/base station and the Client/user’s device or PC. Further, there are specifications to 802.11 standards as a/b/g/n/ac* which defines the frequency band of operation, bandwidth/speed and the backward compatibility.

*Ping point: specification “n” is the most commonly available and used. It is also backward compatible with a/b/g and achieves speeds up to 140 megabits per second. Check your router to see what does it support. You generally get a router with specification alphabets (a/b/g/n) names e.g. N –series routers, etc.

Building blocks of Wifi

The major components of the wireless networking/wifi are:

  1. The wireless antennas – Access Points, routers
  2. The wireless adapter (your device) – mobiles, laptops, tablets, PC, etc. equipped with the wifi cards

To use the internet over wifi at home, of course, you need a working internet line which could be:

  • A fiber coming to your home (FTTH – fiber to the home)
  • Analog telephone line (you will use a modem + router to use the internet)
  • A wifi signal provided by your community/building

So these hotspots/access points transmit the radio waves which then are received by your wifi card enabled device thus creating the internet connection. The range of connectivity depends on the type of router and generally it ranges from 100-500 feet.

Wifi Hotspots are the area covered by the accessible wireless network.

Ping tip: You can create your own wireless hotspot with your Mobile phone or by using a portable hotspot device and putting your mobile SIM card enabled with internet subscription.

How it works

The wireless access points/routers receive information from the internet, translate it into the radio signals and send it over the wireless network to the connected devices/receivers/adapter.

The same process also happens in reverse, i.e. the wireless adapters or your connected device translates the data and send it via the radio waves to the access point/router, which then send it over the internet with the help of physical wired connection.

With the astounding increase in the internet traffic, we have seen an amazing growth in the bandwidth and speed available to the end user. The devices these days are bandwidth hungry as the content is being produced rapidly than ever.

From December 1995 till September 2016 the internet users have grown from 16 million to 3675 million.

Thanks to the wireless connectivity technologies, now the world is always connected.

Cheers!!!!

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